Mature navel orange grove with severe soil compaction from using low cation canal water for irrigation. Average water penetration was 12 inches and trees wilted within seven days after irrigation. There was sandy loam with hard pan at depths of 18-36 inches. ThermX was sprayed onto the irrigation area between trees in four different rows. Treated rows were separated by three untreated rows. Sixty days after treatment and seven days after an irrigation, a soil penetrometer rod was used to determine the depth irrigation water was penetrating. Eleven measurements were made in each row, halfway between the trees.
|Average Inches Water Penetrated|
|Plot 1||Plot 2||Plot 3||Plot 4||Average Increase||%|
|Least significant difference at 5% 5.0|
When the water penetration measurements were made, trees in treated rows were not wilted. Over half the trees in untreated rows were showing severe wilt.
Increased Fertilizer Uptake
Six year old navel orange grove. Soil compaction was severe at the head end of the grove, becoming progressively less severe at the tail end of the rows. Trees at the head end where soil permeability was poor showed typical nitrogen deficiency symptoms in June even though one pound of actual nitrogen per tree had been applied in the spring. A soil analysis showed 15 ppm of nitrate nitrogen present in the root zone, an adequate level. However, the trees were not utilizing the fertilizer in the compacted soil. ThermX was sprayed onto the irrigated area between trees in June on 10 acres of the orchard. One month after treatment, leaf samples were tested for nitrogen from untreated and treated rows and from the compacted to the uncompacted soil areas.
|Percent Nitrogen in Leaves|
|Leaf nitrogen normal 2.5%.||Deficient below 2.2%|
ThermX reduced soil compaction, increased water penetration and uptake. This increased the availability and uptake of nitrogen fertilizer from the soil.
Increased Permeability of Heavy Clay Soil with Salt and Alkali Problems
A dense clay soil with alkali and salt. Soil saturation percentage 67, pH 8.0, total salts in sat. ext. 30 meq.1.; Calcium + Magnesium 17 meq. 1., Sodium 13 meq. 1. ThermX was metered into the irrigation water on 5 acres of a 40 acre tomato field. Poor water penetration, run-off and inadequate subbing were a continual problem. Three weeks after application a soil penetrometer was used to measure changes in soil permeability.
|Inches Rod Penetrated with 20 Weight Drops|
ThermX increased permeability 46% in just 3 weeks. Grower saw improved water penetration and subbing immediately. Plants became greener and more vigorous.
Improved Drainage, Reducing Salinity
Two areas in a grape vineyard were selected because of stunted vines due to high salinity and poor drainage. ThermX was applied twice, 8 months apart, on 5 acres in two areas. The treated soil was compared to the neighboring untreated five acres. Composite soil samples from 10 locations in each treated and untreated area were taken and analyzed.
TOP 6 INCHES|
Meq. 1 of Salt (1)
6-24 INCHES DEEP|
Meq. 1 of Salt
|(1) Conductivity X 10 of a 1:5 soil extract|
A physical examination of the sub-soil indicated that Thermx had increased the percolation rate of irrigation water through the soil. The improved drainage was responsible for the significant decrease in salinity. In the treated areas, a white salt crust on the soil surface disappeared and vine growth improved dramatically.
Increased Water Intake
Eight pairs of tomato seedlings, growing in nutrient solution in test tubes, with equal rates of water consumption were selected. In each pair, the solution of one tube was treated with ThermX. After treatment, the solutions were brought to a standard volume and the rates of water consumption measured.
|Average ml of Water Consumed by 8 Plants|
|Day 1||Day 2||Average Greenhouse Temp.||100°F||70°F||100°F||70°F|
|Significant difference at 1% **; at 5%*|
Water uptake was increased significantly during the 100¡F heat stress period, but not during the 70¡F period. During the first day, ThermX increased water uptake 23 percent. During the second day, 15 percent.
Increased Root Growth
Tomato seedlings were cut-off at ground level and suspended in nutrient solution in darkened plastic containers. ThermX was added to the nutrient solution. After nine days, the roots that had grown were cut from the stem, surface dried and weighed.
|Miligrams of Roots Formed in 9 Days|
ThermX increased the rate of root growth significantly. Some of the roots on ThermX treated cuttings were four inches long, while most of the roots on untreated plants were less than one inch long.
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